Le président américain Joe Biden aurait demandé aux Israéliens d’éviter toute surenchère électorale sur le dossier des négociations concernant les zones maritimes exclusives revendiquées à la fois par le Liban et l’état hébreu, indique le quotidien Al Akhbar.

Cette demande aurait également été transmise à l’ancien premier ministre Benjamin Netanyahou alors que les autorités israéliennes auraient souhaité que la conclusion de tout accord avec le Liban soit reportée au-delà des dates du scrutin.

Par ailleurs, le renoncement d’une partie de la zone maritime exclusive par Tel Aviv semblerait plus difficile à obtenir que prévu. Tout accord avec le Liban réclamerait l’approbation du président israélien, du Premier ministre, des deux tiers des membres du gouvernement et des deux tiers des membres du parlement. Une solution proposée consisterait en la permission donnée au Liban d’obtenir tout le champ de Qana en dépit de la souveraineté d’Israël sur une partie de cette zone.

Cependant, les autorisations de travail sur ce champ seraient complexes à obtenir, Israël obtenant un droit de regard dessus, a fait observer Beyrouth au négociateur américain Amis Hochstein qui vient de retourner à Tel Aviv pour aborder cette partie du dossier.

Focus: The delimitation of the economic zone between Lebanon and Israel

Map provided by the Lebanese army and published by several local media showing the "Hof line" (H) and the entire area claimed by the Lebanese negotiators, which is located between line 1 and line 29. © Lebanese Army

As a reminder, at the origin of this problem, the negotiations between Lebanon and Cyprus in 2011. The starting point of the zone was set arbitrarily by the 2 countries at point 1 of the borders.
Therefore, the Hebrew State has decided to continue the delimitation of its maritime borders at point 25 according to its measures which corresponds to point 1 for Lebanon.
However, Lebanon estimated from the start that the starting point of its economic exclusivity zone was at point 0, according to Beirut or 23, according to the Hebrew state and located 17 km south of point 1, fixed during negotiations. between Tel Aviv and Nicosia.
Thus is delimited a triangle going from point B1 located at Ras al Naqoura to point 0 then to point 1.
This area is claimed by the 2 states, Lebanon and Israel. It thus covers more than 800 square kilometers. Part of blocks 8, 9 and 10 are thus at the center of the controversy.
The situation was worsened by the discovery of a significant potential of gas and oil deposits in this area.
Lebanon says it has maps proving that the area belongs to it.

In addition, the Hoff line named after the American mediator who had already taken up the case in 2011 and which Beirut had already rejected, grants 560 square kilometers to Lebanon and the remainder to Tel Aviv.

In 2019, when negotiations looked like they could be relaunched between Lebanon and Israel, they came to a screeching halt for reasons hitherto unknown. The tension between the 2 countries has also increased with the discovery of tunnels crossing the blue line, the dividing line between the 2 countries.

On October 14, 2020, negotiations between Lebanon and Israel opened at UNIFIL HQ in Naqoura and in the presence of the American mediator, the United States Under Secretary of State, David Schenker, and under the auspices of the coordinator UN Special in Lebanon Jan Kubis.

Tel Aviv, announcing the existence of 2 islets in its territory – uninhabited islets – located not far from the Israeli coast would also have also extended its claims on the Lebanese blocs.

During the 3rd round of negotiations which took place on October 28, Lebanon thus hardened its position and informed the Israeli delegation about its new demands, expanding the exclusive maritime zone to 1,430 additional square kilometers to the detriment of Israel, by extending the land border with a straight line. This zone would include several gas fields already discovered and allocated by Israel to a Greek exploitation company. These Lebanese demands should therefore freeze the exploitation of these fields until an agreement is reached.
It is for Lebanon not to make any concessions on its maritime areas when Israel previously claimed part of them, note some sources, who expected that an agreement could be reached before the end of the year, granting all the original area to Lebanon.

In addition, on April 5, 2021, it is indicated that negotiations between the 2 countries could resume after the publication of a report stating the possible existence of a large gas field in the area even if this remains theoretical for the moment.

Indeed, for the moment, no progress has been noted on this subject, and no meeting is currently officially scheduled.

In addition, decree 6,433 was signed by the ministers of transport Michel Najjar, of defense Zeina Akkar and the outgoing Prime Minister Hassan Diab, in April 2021, while the President of the Republic, General Michel Aoun has decided to suspend his signature pending the government meeting, which the Prime Minister refuses.
This decree formalizes the Lebanese position of enlarging its exclusive economic zone while on the Israeli side, we are preparing to launch an exploratory campaign in the zone.

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